NASA/JPL/University of Arizona First we learned that Mars may be hiding a lake under its southern ice cap. Now a new study points to an active groundwater system that may be lurking deep below the planet’s equatorial regions, feeding a mysterious phenomenon on the Martian surface. If the study holds water, it would be a huge paradigm shift for the dusty, barren planet. And it could open up new avenues of exploration. Two researchers at the University of Southern California, Abotalib Z. Abotalib and Essam Heggy, posit that “recurring slope lineae” (RSL), dark streaks that periodically appear on the side of Martian craters, are being created by an active, deep reservoir of salty water. The study, published Thursday in Nature Geoscience, used images provided by HiRISE, a high-resolution camera aboard the NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter circling the red planet, to analyze distinct surface features. The duo examined images of Palikir crater, which has previously been shown to harbor RSL and is a prime location for present-day water flows, to come up with their new hypothesis. They discovered that RSL most commonly emanate from fractures and cracks in Palikir’s surface. “Mars is not hydrologically dead,” says Heggy. “There is an active groundwater system on Mars that is causing the recurring slope lineae.” 4:38 In the past scientists, have hypothesized a number of reasons the RSL appear on the side of Martian craters, including the idea that they may just be sand flows rather than a phenomenon caused by water. Other groups have suggested they’re caused by seeping salt water that originates from just below the surface. However, radar experiments imaging the Martian surface have not been able to identify any shallow pools of groundwater. Heggy and Abotalib’s background, studying aquifers and groundwater flow in Earth’s desert environments, prompted them to look at the Mars RSL hypothesis from another angle — and they began to see similarities with our planet’s deserts. Their proposal suggests that the water originates from about half a mile below the surface (approximately 750 meters) and that high pressure forces the liquid up through the soil and eventually through cracks and fractures on the surface — resulting in the RSL. “We have seen the same mechanisms in the North African Sahara and in the Arabian Peninsula, and it helped us explore the same mechanism on Mars,” says Abotalib. An important feature of the Mars’ RSL is seasonality. Typically, they appear during the Mars summer and disappear in the fall. Heggy suggests that in the fall, when it’s cooler, the water freezes over the fractures, preventing the RSL from forming. In summer, warm weather allows the pressurized water to flow up and out through the cracks, seeping down the slopes. But with all this high-resolution imaging, why haven’t we spotted the liquid flows before? Tags Stunning images of Mars from the European Space Agency 17 Photos Originally published 9 a.m. PTUpdated 2:10 p.m. PT: Adds Nature Geoscience paper Post a comment “They last for a very short amount of time due to the condition of the surface and pressure on Mars,” explains Heggy. “We don’t have sufficient temporal coverage on Mars to witness that happen in real time.” The tantalizing prospect of water on Mars has long been discussed and researched because of the opportunities it presents to discover life or provide a means for colonization. But for Heggy, this study is less about proving Mars is somewhere humans may one day set up shop and more about our own planet. “Water on Mars is very important, not to colonize Mars, but to understand how our own planet is evolving,” he says. “The importance of groundwater is never about using it as a sustainable resource for humans on Mars.” The mystery of the Mars’ RSL now has another viable theoretical candidate, but there’s still work to be done. NASA Mars rover Curiosity has been exploring regions close to where the RSL form but has not studied them, and direct evidence of an active groundwater system still eludes areologists. Heggy and Abotalib will focus on rectifying that. “We’re going to be trying to see what are the best ways to find direct evidence or map these groundwater systems, potentially using future probing experiments,” he says. It’s been a bumper year for Mars water discoveries. In February, researchers at the University of Utrecht suggested they’d discovered evidence that a deep groundwater system had once existed on Mars, given the features they’d observed in craters. On Wednesday, scientists from the University of Chicago suggested that rivers still raged less than 1 billion years ago. With NASA and the European Space Agency sending rovers to Mars in 2020 — and researchers scouring the planet for signs of groundwater — it might not be long before we have definitive evidence that Mars isn’t as dry as we once thought. RIP Mars Rover Opportunity Share your voice Now playing: Watch this: 0 NASA’s history-making Mars rover Opportunity declared dead Opportunity leaves us with one final, glorious panorama The Red Planet won’t stop killing our rovers NASA Opportunity rover witnessed the wild side of Mars Sci-Tech
BSFA Bangladeshi national was shot to death reportedly by Indian Border Security Force (BSF) members along Sahebnagar border in Godagari upazila of Rajshahi on Thursday, reports UNB.The deceased is Jamal, 45, son of a certain Golam Mostafa of Char Ashariadaha in the upazila.Confirming the incident, BGB Sahebnagar camp commander Nayeb Subedar Sultan Molla said the BGB members from Char Ashariadah camp opened fire to some ‘cattle traders’ including Jamal while they went to pillar no. 1 on the bordering area, leaving Jamal dead on the spot.
Joe Raedle/Getty ImagesOn Wednesday in Miami, Democratic presidential candidates take the stage during the first night of the Democratic presidential debate. From left: former Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julián Castro, New Jersey Sen. Cory Booker, Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, former Texas Rep. Beto O’Rourke and Sen. Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota.If the overarching question heading into the first debate of the 2020 presidential primary for Democratic voters was “Who can you see as president up there?” it’s not certain they got a clear answer.Rather than fireworks — toward each other or President Trump — the candidates took a cautious approach. Will that be the approach on Night 2, Thursday night, with Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders and former Vice President Joe Biden on the same stage?Here are five takeaways from Wednesday night’s debate:1. Elizabeth Warren was consistent.Of all the candidates, the Massachusetts senator came in as the biggest star and, because of that, probably had the most pressure on her. But she was consistent, sticking to policy and her vision for the United States.The impression she made with her answer to the first question set the tone. She was asked a fastball down the middle about whether her succession of big policy proposals would be too much change for the country, and she went to her bread-and-butter response: that a “thinner and thinner slice” of the country is getting ahead and that this needs to change. That’s a home run for what she’s trying to do with her candidacy.We will see, though, if going out on the plank to say that she supports eliminating private health insurance comes back to haunt her if she gets the nomination. It was remarkable that she and New York Mayor Bill de Blasio were the only ones to raise their hands to say they did.2. The gloves stayed on — and the shape of the race stays the same.The moderators tried with the first two questions to stir up a fight between the progressive and pragmatic wings of the Democratic Party, calling on Warren and then shifting to Minnesota Sen. Amy Klobuchar on whether the field was going too far. But Klobuchar didn’t take the bait.“I had to sit back and say, ‘This is the first debate,’ ” Klobuchar said afterward on MSNBC, pointing out that she would have liked to have talked more about Russia and farm policy.That meant the shape of the race did not change. It’s a reminder that it’s early, and until the lines become more sharply defined, the candidates may hold back, although the dynamics for Thursday night’s debate may be different.3. They didn’t take the fight to Trump.It is remarkable that the candidates had relatively little to say about President Trump. It was almost as if he didn’t exist — and the candidates cared more about Republican Senate leader Mitch McConnell.But Trump is running for reelection — and reelection campaigns almost always come down to referendums on sitting presidents and their policies. None of the candidates really made the case as to why they are best equipped to take the fight to Trump. That’s especially glaring given that Democratic voters are saying that what matters most to them is electability and that what they want more than anything is to beat Trump.Even Trump was unperturbed by the debate, dismissing it as boring, and he reserved his biggest criticism for NBC’s technical difficulties.BORING!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) June 27, 2019 .@NBCNews and @MSNBC should be ashamed of themselves for having such a horrible technical breakdown in the middle of the debate. Truly unprofessional and only worthy of a FAKE NEWS Organization, which they are!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) June 27, 20194. Beto O’Rourke did not help his cause.Warren needed to be consistent, and she was. Klobuchar is still in the conversation and had a couple of good moments. But former Rep. Beto O’Rourke shared the middle of the stage with Warren; he needed a good debate, but struggled at times.He often looked overshadowed, and his lack of policy specifics was glaring, especially standing next to Warren. It was that way right from the start when the moderator asked him whether he supports a marginal tax rate of 70% on high-income earners making $10 million a year or more. He deflected and started speaking in Spanish three sentences later.Later, O’Rourke had a hard time defending himself on immigration policy against his fellow Texan, Julián Castro, who had a strong debate, speaking for marginalized people and communities. It’s always especially damning when a candidate plays into a narrative of them that’s already out there — and for O’Rourke, that rap is that he’s light on policy specifics.5. Tonight’s another night.The first Democrat presidential debate continues Thursday night and will include Biden, Sanders, Sen. Kamala Harris of California and South Bend, Ind., Mayor Pete Buttigieg.Will Trump be more of a factor? Do the gloves come off against Biden? Does Harris break out finally? Is Buttigieg able to handle the scrutiny after the police shooting in South Bend that sidelined him from the campaign? Will foreign policy be more of an issue for this group of candidates? Will there be any surprising moments?If Democrats watching at home weren’t thrilled with their choices onstage Wednesday night, they’ll have another crop of 10 to pick from Thursday.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org. Share
×Actors Reveal Their Favorite Disney PrincessesSeveral actors, like Daisy Ridley, Awkwafina, Jeff Goldblum and Gina Rodriguez, reveal their favorite Disney princesses. Rapunzel, Mulan, Ariel,Tiana, Sleeping Beauty and Jasmine all got some love from the Disney stars.More VideosVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9Next UpJennifer Lopez Shares How She Became a Mogul04:350.5x1x1.25×1.5x2xLive00:0002:1502:15 Please join me at All-Hands today where I will speak more about this transition and we will hear from Tony Goncalves and Andy Forssell.Sincerely,-George George Strompolos, founder and CEO of Fullscreen, is stepping down as chief exec to move into an advisory role, a move coming after AT&T’s deal to secure full ownership of Fullscreen parent Otter Media.Strompolos founded Fullscreen in January 2011 as one of the original YouTube multichannel networks that aggregated the channels of thousands of creators.In a memo to Fullscreen employees Friday, Strompolos wrote that he will be moving into an adviser role to Fullscreen and Otter Media. Fullscreen staff will continue to report into Otter Media COO Andy Forssell.“After spending some time away from work and reflecting on my own personal journey, I have decided that now is the right time for me to step down as CEO,” Strompolos wrote.Fullscreen sold a majority stake to AT&T and Chernin Group in 2014, in what would become their Otter Media digital-video joint venture. AT&T acquired Chernin Group’s controlling stake in Otter Media in June. Popular on Variety Since becoming part of AT&T/TCG’s Otter Media, Fullscreen has undergone a series of significant shifts. It made a significant investment in a subscription VOD service, launched in April 2016, targeted at millennials and stocked with original shows. But Fullscreen pulled the plug on it at the end of 2017 after the SVOD service failed to gain traction.Today, Fullscreen is primarily an influencer marketing and branded-content agency, according to Otter Media CEO Tony Goncalves, speaking at Variety‘s Entertainment and Tech Summit in L.A. on Thursday. Where Fullscreen once had as many as 75,000 creator partners three years ago, it now counts 4,500, according to AT&T.Prior to launching Fullscreen, Strompolos worked at Google’s YouTube for more than six years, where he co-created the YouTube partnership program.Read Strompolos’ memo to Fullscreen staff:Team,After spending some time away from work and reflecting on my own personal journey, I have decided that now is the right time for me to step down as CEO. Tomorrow I will be transitioning into an Advisor role to Fullscreen and Otter Media. Fullscreen will continue to report into Otter’s COO, Andy Forssell.Building Fullscreen has been one of the most rewarding experiences in my life. We knew early on that online video, the smartphone and social media would change the world. Together we built a first-of-its-kind company that empowers a diverse spectrum of creative voices and redefines how brands approach their marketing in the modern era. I will never forget the friendships, the late night sessions, the challenges, the wins, the work, the laughs we’ve had and the culture we built. Thank you.My hope is that I have instilled a real spirit of creativity, relentlessness and innovation here that will continue forward in each of you for years to come. We have a deep bench of leaders who reflect these values and will ensure that the future of Fullscreen remains bright. I look forward to supporting this team as an Advisor going forward.