A man has appeared in court charged with making grossly offensive telephone calls to FIVE different female Gardai at a Co Donegal Garda station.Mark Fair appeared at Letterkenny Circuit Court where he pleaded guilty to all the charges against him. The court was told that Fair made grossly offensive telephone calls to Garda Una Cunningham, Lorraine Crawford, Carol Doherty, Elaine Moyles and Grainne McLoone.All the phonecalls were made on January 22nd and January 25th, 2015 at Buncrana Garda Station.The exact nature and contents of the calls were not disclosed in court during Fair’s arraignment.Fair, aged 28 of Ballinahone, Fahan, was also charged with threatening to kill or cause serious harm to Garda Elaine Moyles and her husband on January 10th, 2015.Wearing blue jeans and a navy blue shirt, Fair did not speak during his arraignment other than to plead guilty to all charges put to him.He further pleaded guilty to making threats to cause damage to Garda Elaine Moyle’s home.In all Fair pleaded guilty to ten separate charges relating to the disturbing incidents.Barrister Peter Nolan said his client wanted the matter to be dealt with as quickly as possible.He said Fair did not want any probation or community service or any other reports.“I have spoken to my client and he wants to deal with the matter as soon as the courts see fit.“He also does not require any reports,” said Mr Nolan.Prosecuting barrister Patricia McLaughlin said she accepted the guilty pleas on the condition that full facts in the cases be given when Fair is sentenced.Judge John Aylmer remanded Fair in custody to appear before him again next Wednesday, July 25th for sentencing.Man made ‘grossly offensive’ phonecalls to FIVE female Gardai was last modified: July 22nd, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:buncranacourtdonegalfemale Gardaigrossly offensiveMark Fairphonecalls
It’s hard to know where to stop with examples of Darwinian nonsense. For evolutionists, it’s like April Fool every day. These are just some of the recent examples.Croc-a-dolphin crock: Remember how we said that ‘evolve to‘ is nonsense in Darwinism? That’s because natural selection is blind, unguided, and dumb. It cannot try ‘to’ do anything, because it is impersonal. This article on Science Daily claims, “Crocodiles and dolphins evolved similar skulls to catch the same prey.” One would imagine that crocodiles, since they invented their prey-catching skulls first, would sue the dolphins for copyright infringement. The wizards at Monash University position themselves as eyewitnesses of prehistoric engineering, saying, “despite their very different ancestors, dolphins and crocodiles evolved similarly-shaped skulls to feed on similar prey.”Darwin’s schnotz: Charles Darwin was not fond of his large nose. He chided his friend Asa Gray, who still believed in theistic evolution, “Will you honestly tell me that the shape of my nose was ordained and guided by an intelligent cause?” (ENST). In that tradition, disciple Sara G. Miller writes for Live Science, “What Your Nose Knows About Human Evolution.” She even draws climate change into her tale. “They can be bulbous, pert or pointy, but why do noses look so different from one another?” she writes, gearing up for just-so story mode. “It could have something to do with how humans evolved to live in certain climates, a new study suggests.” Strangely, she calls “genetic drift” a “mechanism of evolution.” But then again, “for the evolution of some human traits, it’s likely that another mechanism, natural selection, also played a role.” Both ‘mechanisms’ are manifestations of the Stuff Happens Law, the veritable anti-mechanism.Popeye sea stars: “Tiny lenses that could have allowed sea stars and brittle stars to respond to light may have evolved at least 57 million years earlier than previously thought,” Nature says in a news quip (see 8/23/01 about the amazing brittle star lenses). Fossil brittlestar eyes, just like those on living brittle stars, have been found 136 million Darwin Years old, tens of millions of Darwin Years older than the previous record (79 million Darwin Years). How, exactly, did these “sophisticated” and “incredible structures” evolve? “The microlenses evolved long after the brittle- and sea-star lineages diverged, so may have emerged independently in the two groups from shared structures,” the article answers, suggesting that Popeye had a twin.Chemical warfare: Hydrogen cyanide is so toxic, it must be handled with extreme care. A paper in PNAS describes a chelicerate that is capable of storing HCN in a non-toxic state and releasing it quickly to deter predators, without harming itself. This entire capability had to exist complete from the beginning, or the animal would die. How could it evolve? Their answer: It just evolved— multiple times, independently!Among animals, cyanogenesis is a defensive strategy that has seemed restricted to a few mandibulate arthropods (certain insects, millipedes, and centipedes), which evolved ways to store HCN in the form of stable and less volatile molecules. We found an instance of cyanogenesis in the phylogenetically distant group Chelicerata (“spider-like” arthropods), involving an aromatic ester for stable HCN storage and two degradation pathways that release HCN.They admit this apparently irreducibly complex system represents an “evolutionary challenge,” but they maintain their undying faith in the power of evolution.The rarity of cyanogenesis in mandibulate arthropods and its supposed absence in the other speciose arthropod subphylum, Chelicerata, may relate to the evolutionary challenge posed by using a universal toxin in defense: self-poisoning must be prevented by storing the highly volatile HCN as a safe carrier molecule or storage molecule. In case of threat or attack, the cyanogenic compounds are discharged and must be quickly degradable to release HCN.Nevertheless, it “obviously evolved multiple times in arthropods.” Obviously. What’s your problem? Don’t you know that “Stuff Happens” is omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent?Parasitology Lesson: In discussion how microbes invaded different parts of the body, Science Daily commits the teleological fallacy multiple times.Microbes evolved to colonize different parts of the human body.As the human species evolved over the last six million years, our resident microbes did the same, adapting to vastly different conditions on our skin (etc.)But figuring out how our bacteria — which by some accounts outnumber our own cells by ten to one — evolved to live with each other and with us has proven particularly challenging.different microbes have evolved to adapt to environments like our skin and mouthEvolution on standby. Microbes under the seafloor aren’t evolving. “Microorganisms in the subsurface seabed on evolutionary standby,” Science Daily states without a blush. Do scientists understand how this stuff happens? “It remains a mystery why these microorganisms have an inherent ability to grow under the extreme conditions that occur in the deep seabed.”Stuff happens earlier than expected. Live Science writes matter-of-factly about fossil algae 1.6 billion Darwin Years old, even though this puts pressure on Darwin’s tinkerers at the beginning. Mindy Weisberger doesn’t blink an eye when she says, “The ancient specimens are 400 million years older than previous fossil algae discoveries, and hint that multicellular life evolved on Earth far earlier than was once thought.” Thought by whom?Plant breath: Elizabeth Pennisi, writing for Science Magazine, offers a thanksgiving prayer to evolution.Anyone awed by towering redwoods should offer thanks to stomata, the tiny pores on the leaves of all trees and other vascular plants. These microscopic mouths allow plants to grow tall and to regulate carbon dioxide intake and water loss. Stomata, in short, helped plants colonize the landscape and transform the planet. Now, molecular studies are giving scientists glimpses of the early days of stomata and how they have changed since then. They suggest complex stomata evolved to help early plants control moisture in their spore capsules and that other plants later exploited these pores to breathe in carbon dioxide and exhale water vapor. And hundreds of millions of years later, more sophisticated stomata evolved in grasses, enabling them to tightly control water loss—a feature that helped them dominate dry landscapes around the world.Like Popeye, Darwin’s Tinkerbell cartoon character gets instant results like popcorn. And Tinkerbell also knows the convergence trick, her lab being well stocked with Darwin Flubber.But where did this evolutionary wonder come from?Stomata are seen in 418-million-year-old plant fossils and are found even in ancient plant groups like mosses. “It’s as if they popped up fully formed, and surely that cannot be the case,” says Alistair Hetherington, a plant biologist at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom…. [she delves into alleged convergent emergences of stomata].None of this work truly gets to the earliest events in stomata evolution, researchers note—even the versions on moss spore capsules must have taken a long time to arise. “Much like the big bang theory doesn’t tell us anything about events before the origin of the universe, we know almost nothing about the steps that led to the first stomata,” says Peter Franks at the University of Sydney. But although the cosmologists’ questions may be unanswerable, plant scientists hope to explore the story of stomata back to their beginnings.Sequoia forest, by David CoppedgeVocal excellence: Speaking of the “emergence of linguistic laws in human voice,” authors of a paper in Nature Scientific Reports marvel at what natural selection has accomplished (even though they only mention ‘natural selection’ once, and never speak of mutations). Chaos, they say, has produced perfection:We will show clear evidence of robust Zipf, Heaps and brevity laws emerging in this context and speculate that this might be due to the fact that human voice seems to be operating close to a critical state, hence finding an example of a biological system that, driven by evolution, has linked complexity and criticality….From an evolutionary viewpoint, under this latter perspective human voice, understood as a communication system which has been optimized under evolutionary pressures, would constitute an example where complexity (described in terms of robust linguistic laws) emerges when a system is driven close to criticality, something reminiscent of the celebrated edge of chaos hypothesis.They must have evolved: Ichthyosaurs were highly successful marine reptiles. Trouble is, they have no known ancestors in the fossil record. And according to evolutionists, they must have evolved from land animals. Stephen Brusatte says in Nature, “They totally changed their bodies, biologies and behaviours in order to live in the water.” Their evolutionary journey mirrors that of the whales, which came from cows or dogs (according to Darwin followers). Like everything else in Darwin fantasyland, ichthyosaurs took the Stuff Happens Law into their own hands. “Many evolved huge eyes — larger than footballs, in one species — for peering through the dark depths,” Darwin Party propagandist Traci Watson writes. Any support for their evolution? “The ancestors of ichthyosaurs remain unknown,” an infographic states.Art evolution: Stephen Pinker and other prominent evolutionists think that art is a product of evolution. When book reviewer Nurin Veis discusses “Four takes on the evolution of art” in Nature, she’s literally doing away with intelligent design in this pre-eminently creative human activity. Describing an exhibit in Australia that explores the origins of art from the perspective of four evolutionists, she says, “Each answers a tough question: does art have a biological basis, and has it contributed to human evolution?” Example: “Pinker focuses on Darwinism, asking whether the desire and ability to make art is a heritable trait that gives humans a reproductive advantage, or whether it is a by-product of survival adaptations” — clearly a false choice. Another evolutionist views art as “a strategy for attracting mates by signalling fitness, intelligence, skill, resourcefulness and dominance.” Who knows; maybe theorizing about Darwinian evolution ’emerged’ the same way (cue sound of short circuit).We’ll pass up Phys.org‘s treatise on Beard Chromodynamics (cf. 3/31/06). Suffice it to say that evolutionary confabulation knows no limits. At Evolution News, David Klinghoffer comments, “When it comes to explaining major biological novelties, the evolutionary story is a matter of extrapolation and imagination.”In this extensive three-part series, we had to quit after documenting 32 recent (2017) examples of Darwinians breaking the rules of science. You’ve watched as they have assumed evolution by assertion, as they have ascribed magical powers to it, as they have misrepresented it by interjecting teleology into it contrary to Darwin’s whole program, as they have told just-so stories with made-up words, and as they have displayed unshakeable faith in its powers with no need for evidence. The scope of their just-so stories ranges from microbes to humans. These documented cases are not from obscure corners, but from the leading journals (PNAS, Science, Nature) and from the leading science news services. They all commit almost every fallacy in the Baloney Detector.Now, tell us about the “fact” of evolution.Recommended Resource: Tom Bethell’s new book Darwin’s House of Cards agrees with our position that natural selection is a tautology, a classic case of circular reasoning. This veteran journalist interviewed Karl Popper and heard him maintain his position that Darwinism was not science because it is unfalsifiable. He also interviewed Richard Lewontin, Stephen Jay Gould and other leading Darwinian experts. Bethell looks at the house of cards from every angle and finds nothing of substance.Now the fit will be survivors and survivors will be fitAnd survivors will survive to prove the fitness of the fitO, this natural selection, it’s so simple isn’t it?‘Tis ruthless marching on.— from our Darwin hymnbook(Visited 126 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
by Ross Anderson, Ph.D.I’m sure that most readers have heard of mitochondria, and how important they are to all eukaryotic cells. They are commonly referred to as the cell’s “powerhouse” as they are responsible for synthesizing the bulk of ATP required to power many reactions in a cell.A characteristic of all eukaryotic cells is that they have membrane-bound organelles within them. Some, like the nucleus and mitochondria, are bounded by two membranes, but most are bounded by a single membrane. Regardless of the number of membranes, all must have transport mechanism in place to get proteins into them in order to function properly. Each organelle utilizes different designs to transport proteins into them, or out of them.Two organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria, have different complexes; however, there is one complex that is common to both. It is called Ubx2. A recent paper in Nature by Christoph U. Martensson et al., with a ho-hum title “Mitochondrial Protein Translocation-Associated Degradation,” is actually about quality control inside the cells of our bodies. The researchers found some exciting news about this protein complex Ubx2: it acts like a crossing guard, ferrying passengers safely through the membrane. But this is no ordinary crossing guard. It also acts as a bouncer or cop when bad proteins try to clog up the channel. And it has access to the whole search-and-rescue team. Without this entire system knowing what to do in advance of trouble, the whole cell could die.Making the IngredientsMaking ATP in the mitochondria requires the use of many different proteins that work as parts of large complexes. Some of these proteins are located in the matrix region of the mitochondria (the inner parts), and many are located between membranes, either the inner membrane or the outer membrane. A mitochondrion has a small genome of its own, but a large majority of its proteins are encoded by genes located in the nucleus—not in the mitochondrial DNA. Consequently, these genes must be transcribed in the nucleus, then translated into proteins in the cytosol of the cell (i.e., outside the mitochondria).Transporting the IngredientsAfter the precursor proteins have been transcribed in the cytosol, they must then be transported into the mitochondria and folded properly before they are able to function as proteins or enzymes. Because we live in a fallen world, not everything proceeds perfectly or is made perfectly; mutations occur. As such, sometimes proteins do not have the correct amino acid sequence, or even if they do, they simply don’t fold properly. Proteins destined for the mitochondria are maintained in an unfolded state until they are transported into the mitochondria where they are folded by special helper enzymes called chaperonins. This is accomplished by the binding of certain proteins in the cytosol known as heat-shock proteins (Hsp’s). Hsp’s are also called chaperones, because they bind to unfolded regions of proteins and prevent them from engaging in improper interactions that might lead to an improperly folded protein.Meet TOMIf mitochondrial protein precursors are not transported into the mitochondria properly, they will accumulate on the outer surface of the mitochondria. This leads to a mitochondrial-induced stress response by the cell whereby a number of cellular activities are affected. As a consequence of improper transport by the transport channel, TOM (Translocon Outer Membrane), becomes clogged and proteins can no longer be transported into the mitochondria. This can lead to down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins which will compromise the synthesis of ATP.The TOM itself is actually a complex of proteins. The various members, numbered like Tom20 and Tom70, work together for the efficient transport of mitochondrial proteins through the outer membrane. Each protein of the complex is encoded by its own gene, and the various genes are carefully regulated so that the correct number of components are ready for assembly of the TOM. As the name implies, TOM is located in the outer membrane and forms the channel through which proteins traverse the outer membrane. The TOM joins another protein complex, TIM (Translocon Inner Membrane), located in the inner membrane. TIM forms a channel through the inner membrane. Together these two complexes of proteins form a complete channel through both membranes. The TOM core complex is made up of Tom40, Tom22, and various small Tom proteins. This complex associates with Toms 20 and 70.The Quality Control TeamTogether, the proteins Ubx2 and Cdc48 promote clearance of stalled precursor proteins from the general entry gate of mitochondria, the TOM complex, for proteasomal degradation. Credit: Christoph Mårtensson, University of FreiburgThe authors found that Ubx2 associates with Tom40 and some of the other proteins of the complex, except for Tom70. Under conditions where a cell is stressed, another protein, Cis1 binds to Tom70 and recruits Msp1 which aids in the removal of non-imported precursor proteins. However, under ‘normal’ non-stressed conditions, Ubx2 binds. In the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), Ubx2 functions with two proteins, DOA10 and HRD1, which, together, recruit an ATPase (an ATP-powered enzyme), Cdc48, and function in the removal and degradation of proteins from channels in the ER membrane if they failed to make it through. So in the ER, Ubx2 associates with DOA10 and HRD1, but at the mitochondria, it has a different role. There, Ubx2 associates with Tom40, 22 and 20. This suggested to the authors that there must be two populations of Ubx2; one for the ER and one for mitochondria.Interestingly, Ubx2 itself, must be transported into the mitochondria in order to function. Once in the mitochondria, Ubx2 can associate with the mature Tom40 complex only in the presence of Tom22 and Tom70. Once associated with Tom40 the complex of Toms20, 22, 40 and 70 can recruit Cdc48 to the TOM complex. However, in order for Cdc48 to associate with the TOM there must be yet another two proteins, Ufd1 and Np14. If you can keep track of all this complexity, Cdc48 also has associated proteins, Vms1 and Msp1, required for mitochondrial-associated degradation of proteins!Putting it All TogetherA mitochondrion’s main function is to run its powerhouse, a sequence of molecular machines called the electron transport chain. This chain produces ATP from the food that we eat. The scientists in the Nature paper reported that, without Ubx2 and Vms1 or Msp1, the stability of the electron transport chain complexes (respiratory chain) in the inner membrane was compromised. As a result, proteins would get tagged with ubiquitin (the “kill-me” tag) for destruction and, as a result, would accumulate at the TOM. Thus, the TOM complex recruits Ubx2 which, in turn, recruits Cdc48 and its partner proteins, Udf1 and Np14. The Cdc48 complex then extracts arrested proteins from the TOM channel. The extracted proteins are then degraded by a proteasome (another complex of proteins that degrades faulty proteins and recycles the amino acids). The authors dubbed this quality control system ‘mitoTAD’ for mitochondrial translocation-associated degradation. Thus the “mitoTAD maintains the full functionality of the TOM complex for correct import of precursor proteins into the mitochondria.” Without it, aberrant precursor proteins would accumulate and clog the TOM. That, obviously, could lead to the detriment of the cell and the entire organism.Sticking to the ScienceMost likely, all the authors believe that evolution is the explanation for how this came to be. To their credit, though, they did not engage in evolutionary storytelling to try and prop up an evolutionary ideology. They clearly answered the three questions an objective scientist should ask:What is it?What does it do?How does it do it?It was refreshing, therefore, to see a paper stick to the science. That said, anyone reading this paper with an open mind would be amazed at the complex quality control involved in the seeming “simple” task of ushering proteins through a membrane. The transport systems usually work well, but it is evident that foresight was involved in knowing how to handle emergencies, like when protein precursors get stuck in the channel. Does this not all show clearly the hallmarks of intelligent design? Look how many proteins are required. Each of these must be able to bind to others, so that they function as a whole.Irreducible Complexity SquaredMutation studies by the authors showed that when one or more of the needed proteins are absent, the function of the whole is lost. Assembly of one complex of proteins is required before the proper assembling and functioning of another complex; e.g., assembly of the TOM complex sets the stage for recruitment of the Ubx2 complex which, in turn, sets the stage for recruitment of the Cdc48 complex. Thus, we see irreducible complexity at two points: an irreducibly complex collection of parts arranged in an irreducibly complex sequence over time.This is very much like a Rube Goldberg machine. (If you don’t know what that is, see this entertaining modern example on YouTube.) Clearly, one malfunction anywhere in the sequence stops everything downstream that depends on it. Nobody would think the device in the video would arise by chance. Let’s be consistent, therefore, and apply the same reasoning in this case. The inference to the best explanation therefore—arising from the scientific facts themselves—is that intelligence with foresight played a fundamental role in the creation of this system. Bible-believers like me joyfully attribute that mind to the wonder-working hand of the Creator God of Genesis. Recommended Resource: Foresight, a new book by Brazilian scientist Marcos Eberlin, gives numerous examples in nature of processes and systems that required planning and foresight to work. This pro-ID book has been endorsed by 3 Nobel laureates.(Visited 519 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Ross Anderson (PhD biochemistry) is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California. Dr Anderson’s expertise is in the area of biochemistry and molecular biology. He has taught Biochemistry and helped to direct research projects of graduate and medical students at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Dr. Anderson was a post-doctoral researcher in the Molecular Genetics Division of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Houston Neurosensory Center.Dr Anderson was a member of both the undergraduate and graduate faculty at Lamar University, Beaumont, TX. There he taught and directed the research activities of undergraduates and Masters of Science degree candidates in Biology. Currently he is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California.Dr Anderson’s research interests include structure-function studies of DNA polymerizing enzymes and the synthesis and expression of synthetic human genes in bacterial hosts. He has authored or co-authored several publications in major, peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and Sigma Xi Research Society.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Recent comments by the mayor of Toledo have prompted corn, soybean and wheat farmers throughout Ohio to invite him to witness for himself their hard work and significant investments to protect water quality.For example, last month, Mayor Wade Kapszukiewicz told WTOL 11 that Toledo’s water has been “polluted for us” by Ohio farmers. Realizing that the mayor has not been educated about farmers’ leadership on conservation issues, Farmers are using the hashtag #WadeIsWelcome to extend the invitation for a farm tour.Last week, Mayor Kapszukiewicz told the Toledo Blade, “At some point, facts and research have to matter.” Ohio grain farmers couldn’t agree more. That’s why they are calling, tweeting, and emailing the mayor to invite him to their farms and see exactly how much investment and work has been done to find and implement science-based, long term solutions.“Ohio’s agricultural community has worked very hard to address water quality,” said Jon Miller, Fairfield grain farmer and president of the Ohio Corn & Wheat Growers Association. “We’re proud of what we have accomplished and are eager to share information about all of the things we’ve been doing with Mayor Kapszukiewicz.”The OCWGA and Ohio Soybean Association have collaborated with researchers, government agencies and environmental groups to reduce the amount of phosphorus that runs off into the Lake Erie water basin. Researchers, for example, collect data in the fields, and farmers use that data, along with the newest field-by-field recommendations, to apply best management practices on their farms, including cover crops, nutrient management plans, soil sampling and a reduction in fertilizer use. Meanwhile, Ohio farmers are applying less fertilizer than ever before.“Mayor Kaszukiewicz’s confusion about Ohio agriculture can be cleared up with a visit to any of our farms,” said Scott Metzger, Ross County grain farmer, president of the Ohio Soybean Association. “We welcome him to come see us in action — and to work with us on continuing to protect water quality.”
Check out all of the Geocaches of the Week on the Geocaching blog. If you would like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, fill out this form. Share with your Friends:More Difficulty: 5 Terrain: 5 Image by airavs. SharePrint RelatedA Piece of California in Germany — Wellingtonie (GCXGEX) — Geocache of the WeekDecember 18, 2013In “Community”The Once and Future Geocacher — Excalibur (GC2VQ88) — Geocache of the WeekSeptember 4, 2013In “Community”Epic Winter Adventure Awaits! – Georgia on my mind (GCV3AH) – Geocache of the WeekJanuary 15, 2015In “Community” In whichever season you choose to find this cache, there are some essential Tools of the Trade you will want to bring with you. Make sure to pack these items: – Your best geocaching buddy – Map – Waterproof container for map – Compass – Spare batteries – Snacks and water – Lifevest (optional) Image by DoctorZG. Image by deicmanis. If you complete this Wherigo in the heat of the summer, you can cool off by swimming between the islands. Swimming is an essential component of this Wherigo, as some of the Wherigo zones are located entirely in water. In the winter it’s an entirely different experience; swimsuits will have to be traded for warm coats and boots in order to hike across frozen water. Wherigo GC3N9Q6 by Gatisk Madara_Apsalone. Cache owner Gatisk was inspired to create this Wherigo after taking part in a rogaining competition in the area. Rogaining is a team orienteering sport based around cross-country navigation. The route of the Wherigo was created to mirror the winning route of the 2011 competition. Geocachers should expect to spend most of the day completing this long Wherigo, but if you’re feeling up for an extra challenge you can try and complete it in under four hours, the winning time from the 2011 competition. Located a short distance from Latvia’s capital, Riga, this Wherigo® Cache leads cachers on a journey through one of the largest bogs in Latvia. The name of the cache, Wet Cat, refers to the appearance of the green moss found around the nature reserve where the cache was placed. However, it could also refer to the appearance of a geocacher who has arrived at this cache’s final coordinates. Location: Latvia N 56° 51.761′ E 023° 47.279′ Cachers who take on this D5/T5 challenge leave not just with another find, but also with an appreciation of the natural beauty of the Baltic region, and an adventurous story to tell. Everyone loves a geocache that can be found without too much hassle, but sometimes a geocacher craves something more. Sometimes a geocacher wants to spend all day on an adventure. Sometimes a geocacher wants to swim across lakes, jump between islands, and hike across bogs to make it to the logbook. For anyone looking for a cache that fulfills these requirements, look no further than Slapjais Kakis/Wet Cat, our Geocache of the Week.
You’ve got your script, your cast, and your crew, so you’re ready to shoot, right? Not exactly. You need to break down your script first.Breaking down your script makes you properly list out all of your characters, props, costumes, and set needs — to name a few things. By doing so, you identify what and who you’ll need per scene. A film’s producer typically does a rough breakdown, followed by the 1st AD’s more thorough pass. But with a low budget you may have to do it yourself. There are programs and plugins for script writing software that allow you to do this digitally, but you can also do it manually with markers and highlighters.Create a LegendEvery producer has their own variation on the breakdown, but the following roughly summarizes the typical approach. Using your software or markers, you need to create a legend. The legend should include at least the following: character, costume, props, set dressing, and sound. Assign each of these its own color.Depending on your script, you may need more. Will there by any stunts? Any vehicles or extras? How about any trained animals? Does the script have any musical cues? Each script has its own needs, so you’ll need to customize your color codes accordingly.Breakdown BasicsYou need to break down the script scene by scene. Move through each scene and highlight the various characters, props, etc., using their designated colors. You only need to highlight them the first time they appear in a scene. (But don’t only highlight them the first time they appear in the script overall.) You need to be able to hand off each scene’s breakdown sheet (more on that in a bit) to each department. Everyone needs to know immediately what each scene needs without referencing the script.Here is a sample breakdown from my short film “The Accomplice.”Everyone will have a slightly different approach. Here, I didn’t highlight the “silhouette of a man” because later he gets properly revealed as The Thief, which I did highlight. I double highlighted “his pistol” as both costume and prop because while you don’t wear a gun you do wear a holster. I put “flips on a switch” under set dressing because a light switch is obviously an important part of the environment but not really an item Jake Pope will be carrying around. I also highlighted “bedroom” just as a possible note for the production design department so that they know they may have to dress that room; I did the same for the “kitchen.” The kettle whistling and the door rustling were both important sounds for the scene, so I highlighted them to make sure the sound department knew they’d be capturing those sounds.As I mentioned before, next time either of these characters or props appears in another scene, I will mark them accordingly and put it in the breakdown sheet. We break down the script scene by scene, not as a whole unit. If a prop returns, you need to note it.Organizing the Breakdown SheetAfter breaking down the script, you’ll need to organize it. You need to turn the highlighted script into a legible sheet you can hand off to the individual departments. At the top of the sheet, write down the scene’s slug line. Begin filling in the appropriate sections of your breakdown sheet. Which characters appear in the scene? Do they have props or specific costumes? What set dressing appears in the scene?Here is an example of a breakdown sheet. (I modified a free template from StudioBinder.com.)After you’re finished, distribute the breakdown sheet to the various departments. The costume department, prop department, production designer, stunt coordinator, etc. can all reference this sheet and know exactly what you’re expecting from them.As you can see, the script doesn’t always contain every detail. For instance, this script didn’t specify what type of costume our characters would be wearing. This is something that you’ll want to speak with the director about. What does he or she envision for these characters? The same goes for just about every aspect of the breakdown sheet. Review it with the director and producer to fill in any gaps the script may not detail.Importance of a Script BreakdownBreaking down the script facilitates communication — it doesn’t leave anything to chance. You can’t afford to rely solely on memory when filming. And simply mentioning something in the script isn’t enough. It’s far too easy to overlook something or take a prop for granted. When we break down the script, everything ends up on a list, making it easier for everyone to do their jobs.So does it work? You can see the results of this breakdown in my short film “The Accomplice.” A good breakdown helped us prepare for the production. And once you’ve created your own breakdown and you’re ready to start filming, check out “Getting Started in Effective Low-Budget Film and Video Production.”Cover image via NERYXCOM.Looking for more filmmaking tips and tricks? Check these out.Industry Tips: Why Below-The-Line Talent Needs a PublicistStreamline Your Film or Video Project with an Assistant EditorLens Tips: Doing the Work of Four Lenses with TwoRoundup: The Best Portable Hard Drives for Video EditingThe Indie Filmmaker’s Guide to Low- or No-Budget Location Scouting